The Concept of Justice
To us, justice is a function of morality, whether human or divine. To the ancient Greeks, however, justice was a measurement of the status quo, a function of the way people are supposed to behave at their station in life. The Homeric idea of justice is very different from our own; it suggests that whereas our sense of justice is founded upon morality, justice in Homer's time centered around the maintenance of the status quo. "Odyssey" and "Aeneid" each present a distinct political teaching regarding human ends and the form of civil society most conducive to the realization of those ends. Homer's Zeus and Virgil's Jupiter guide their heroes to embody principles of natural justice that in turn found political constitutions.
The Political Plan of Zeus, represents the first comprehensive theory of the meaning of Zeus's providence in both Homeric poems, a new interpretation of the muse in Homer, and the first attempt to compare the "Aeneid" with PlatonicAristotelian teaching on the nature of man and the problem of empire. The Odyssey's hero, the conscious immoral Odysseus, was in essence nothing more than wildly irrational, criminal killers with no sense of honesty or justice. The nature of all gloryseeking criminal minds is summed up in the character of Odysseus, especially as he returns home after a decade of glorious battles and heroic adventures. The great bully Odysseus simply plunders and butchers the innocent populations of defenseless coastal towns whenever he and his cohorts want to feel big and powerful whenever they want to plunder the value producers, rape them, kill them, have a good time.
Such Homeric-hero characters are not human beings, but are humanoids with no concept of honesty, human values, or objective justice. They are criminals who pretend worthiness through fake glories, destructive heroics, and evil ego justice. All their boastfully paraded heroics, courage, and glory are nothing more than masks for criminal acts and parasitical cowardice. All such humanoids are simply plunderers and killers, nothing more, no matter what heroics they stage. Indeed, was that the message, which the blind-poet Homer intended? For, Homer grants no hint of virtuous good-versus-evil struggles by those heroes. If so, 400 years later, the politician-philosopher Plato turned Homer's message upside down. As identified, Plato ingeniously constructed an integrated philosophy justifying the parasitical control and dictatorial rule of the honest value producers by criminal-minded elites. Finally, 300 years after Plato, the Roman poet Virgil in his famous secondary epic, the Aeneid, recycled Homer's Odyssey into a gentler, more hidden form of evil. Thus, Virgil laid the structure forever more subtle and hidden neocheating techniques.
Virgil promotes the evil falsity that the virtues of life, character, bravery, and morality lie in sacrifice and service sacrifice of the workers and value producers to the service of the parasitical elites. All such calls for sacrifice are done under the arbitrary guises of government, nationalism, religion, society, higher causes, whatever sounds good at the time. Virgil's Aeneid lays the foundations for totalitarianism and glorious leaders like Hitler to rise and destroy entire economies and populations. Ever since Virgil, subtle neocheating techniques have allowed criminal-minded humanoids to plunder the value producers in countless, hidden ways while appearing moral, even heroic. Thus, those neocheating techniques allowed an irrational anticivilization to rise and exist to this day on planet Earth.
Beowulf tells of a hero, a Scandinavian prince named Beowulf (A future king of the Geats), who rids the Danes of the monster Grendel, half man and half fiend. Fifty years later, Beowulf succeeds in repeating similar exploits, freeing his own land from devastation. The third and final primary epic of Western literature, the allegorical Beowulf, written about 1000 AD, reflects an honest, moral foundation for conscious beings. The hero, Beowulf, is genuinely noble and honest as his pure goodness triumphs over pure evil over allegorical monsters that are metaphors for humanoid neocheaters. Indeed, Beowulf himself explicitly identifies the greatest evil as harming and killing innocent people, especially one's own people. But, evilly unprincipled Odysseus, not virtuously principled Beowulf, underpins Earth's anticivilization. Yet, Beowulf represents the first glimmerings of the Civilization of the Universe. In this anticivilization, most political leaders are nothing more than camouflaged, criminal-minded plunderers. Those leaders hide behind Plato and Virgil's neocheating techniques. They are simply modernday Odysseus’s committing their hidden crimes to garner unearned livelihoods, power, and glory be they a Hitler, a Stalin, a Bush, and a Clinton. If it sees truth as the widest possible compilation of people’s perceptions, stories, myths and experiences, it will have chosen to restore memory and foster a new humanity, and perhaps that is justice in the deepest sense.
The disintegration of civilization begins with a "time of troubles, when the civilization is beset by a restive internal proletariat and an active external proletariat The afflicted minority gives rise to a universal state, such as Rome (Greece actually gave rise to two universal states, the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Roman Empire). The internal proletariat gives rise to a universal religion such as Christianity. Finally, the external proletariat gives raise to barbarian war-bands, which give rise to heroic ages and epic literature, in this case, the English Beowulf and The Song of Roland in the west.
The Odyssey as a basis for his Aeneid. The Aeneid is a mythological epic in 12 books describing the 7-year wanderings of the hero Aeneas from the fall of Troy to his military victory in Italy. He assembles a fleet and sails with the surviving Trojans to many adventures in Thrace, Crete, Epirus, and Sicily before being shipwrecked on the coast of Africa, where the queen, Dido, commits suicide when he leaves (as he was commanded to by Jupiter) because of her love of him. After landing at the mouth of the Tiber River in Italy, Aeneas kills Turnus, king of the Rutulians, in a war for the hand of Lavinia, princess of Latium. According to Virgil, the Romans were directly descended from Ascanius, the founder of Alba Longa, mother city of Rome.
The Odyssey is a tale of one hero's (Odysseus) long, difficult, and adventurous journey home from the Trojan War. It starts by describing the disorder that has arisen in Odysseus' household during his long absence, where a band of suitors is devouring his property as they woo his wife Penelope. The story then shifts to Odysseus' ten years of traveling, during which he has to face such dangers as the man-eating giant Polyphemus and other threats as the goddess Calypso, who offers him immortality if he will abandon his quest for home. The second half of the epic deals with Odysseus' arrival at his home in Ithaca. Here, disguised as a beggar, Odysseus tests the loyalty of his servants, plots and carries out a bloody revenge on Penelope's suitors, and is reunited with his family.
Virgil widened the scope of the epic poem from the adventures of individual heroes to the history of his country. The Aeneid recounts the founding of Rome by Aeneas and his followers when they sought new lands to settle after the sack of Troy. Virgil takes a national legend, but projects it on to a wider plane, describing not only the origin but also the future greatness of Rome. He is sometimes believed to have foretold in the Fourth Eclogue the coming of Christ: in making his poem symbolical of the destiny of Rome, he has at the same time symbolized the destiny of man. Virgil's special contribution to the development of the epic is therefore to broaden or elevate its theme from the individual to the national perspective. A great theme is now regarded as an essential ingredient in epic poetry, in addition to a solemn style and exalted language. All types of academic writing you can order at PhDify.com
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